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Her expertise is in personal finance and investing, and real estate. Under US GAAP, cash interest paid is reported as an operating cash flow. Under IFRS, cash interest paid can be reported as operating or financing cash flow. The adjustment type “Amortization” decreases cost and decreases income; the adjustment type “Accretion” increases cost and increases income. If the Premium is known, the Payments or the Yield (interest rate) may be calculated when the other data is known Simply leave the unknown field blank. Volatility profiles based on trailing-three-year calculations of the standard deviation of service investment returns.

This annual amortization amount is the discount on the bonds ($10,000) divided by the 10-year life of the bond, or $1,000 per year. Thus, the company will record $9,000 of interest expense, of which $8,000 is cash and $1,000 is the amortization of the discount. Prepare a https://dodbuzz.com/running-law-firm-bookkeeping/ for the first 4

interest periods.

## Straight-Line Method of Amortization: Definition

The cash interest payment is still the stated rate times the principal. The interest on carrying value is still the market rate times the carrying value. The difference in the two interest amounts is used to amortize the discount, but now the amortization of discount amount is added to the carrying value. When a consumer borrows money, she can expect to not only repay the amount borrowed, but also to pay interest on the amount borrowed. When she makes periodic loan payments that pay back the principal and interest over time with payments of equal amounts, these are considered fully amortized notes. The amount borrowed that is still due is often called the principal.

The only difference is that the bond is issued at a deep discount and there are no coupon payments. So, the total interest expense for the year comprises the discount amortization for the year. Effective interest amortization of discountsMore frequently, businesses account for bond premiums or discounts under the effective interest method.

## Bond Classifications:

We can use our same example Series 2022 issue to show the calculations. For the remaining eight periods (there are 10 accrual or payment periods for a semi-annual bond with a maturity of five years), use the same structure presented above to calculate the amortizable bond premium. A bond premium occurs when the price of the bond has increased in the secondary market due to a drop in market interest rates. A bond sold at a premium to par has a market price that is above the face value amount.

If so, the issuing company must amortize the amount of this excess payment over the term of the bonds, which reduces the amount that it charges to interest expense. A method of amortizing a bond premium is with the constant yield method. The constant yield method amortizes the bond premium by multiplying the purchase price by the yield to maturity at issuance and then subtracting the coupon interest. For a zero-coupon bond, the amortization is exactly like the discount bond.

## How to Amortize Bond Premium?

In the case of a tax-exempt obligation, if the bond premium allocable to an accrual period exceeds the qualified stated interest allocable to the accrual period, the excess is a nondeductible loss. When we issue a bond at a discount, remember we are selling the bond for less than it is worth or less than we are required to pay back. The difference between the price we sell it and the amount we have to pay back is recorded in a contra-liability account called Discount on Bonds Payable.

- Regardless of when the bonds are physically issued, interest starts to accrue from the most recent interest date.
- We can use the example of the Series 2022 Bonds we used for our effective interest rate calculations.
- 50,000 is entered for each of the 16 periods and the face value (1,000,000) is entered on the maturation date.
- Due to a change in market yield, the change in market value of the bond is reported in the income statement as a gain or loss.

The result of this, as well as subsequent entries, is to reflect the increase in the carrying value of the bonds. (2) The amount of any payment previously made on the bond other than a payment of qualified stated interest. Notwithstanding § 1.171–5(a)(1), paragraph (a)(4)(i)(C)(1) of this section applies to a bond acquired on or after January 4, 2013. A taxpayer, however, may rely on paragraph (a)(4)(i)(C)(1) of this section for a bond acquired before that date. This entry records $1,000 interest expense on the $100,000 of bonds that were outstanding for one month. Valley collected $5,000 from the bondholders on May 31 as accrued interest and is now returning it to them.

The effective interest amortization method is more accurate than the straight-line method. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) require the use of the effective-interest method, with no exceptions. As indicated in Example 1 of this paragraph (c), this same amount would be taken into income at the same time had A used annual accrual periods.

For example, consider a company that issues 10% bonds with a face value of $100,000 for $95,000. However, the difference between how much it has to ultimately repay in principal ($100,000) and the amount it received from selling the bonds ($95,000) represents an additional cost of financing. The straight-line method allocates a fixed portion of the bond discount or premium each interest period to adjust the interest payment to interest expense. An entry is usually made on every interest date, and if necessary, an adjusting journal entry is made at the end of each period to record the discount amortization. Under the straight-line method, bond premium is amortized equally in each period.